In this study, the morphological and anatomical features of Tulipa orphanidea (Liliaceae) were investigated.
The specimens were collected from Edirne-Üyüklütatar village in April-May of 2009. A detailed description
of the plant and of the features of its vegetative organs is provided, and the morphological features of the
species are also compared with those reported in the Flora of Turkey. For anatomical investigation, sections
of the root, stem, and leaf were cut manually with a razor blade. The adventive root, stem, and leaf anatomy of
the species display the common properties of monocotyledons. The stem contains monolayer collenchyma
close to the epidermis. The leaves are amphistomatic, and the mesophyll is unifacial.
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Morphology and anatomy of Tulipa orphanidea were
examined in this study. There are few morphological
and anatomical studies related to the Tulipa species
(Ocak & al. 2004; Satıl & Akan 2006; Coşkunçelebi
& al. 2008). T. armena Boiss. var. lycica was morphologically
and anatomically investigated by Ocak & al
(2004); T. aleppensis was studied only anatomically by
Satıl & Akan (2006). Coşkunçelebi & al. (2008) have
compared the anatomical, palynological and ecological
features of T. gumusanica and T. armena Boiss. var.
The morphological features of T. orphanidea in this
study are similar to those given by Marais (1984), except
for the anther length. Our results have shown that
the unopened anthers were 24–28 mm, while Marais
(1984) had reported that the anthers were 7–12 mm
long. The difference may be caused by shrinkage after
anther dehiscence. The anatomical features of the
root of T. orphanidea are similar to the studied Tulipa
species (Ocak & al. 2004; Satıl & Akan 2006). The
common anatomical traits of the stem of T. orphanidea
are in accordance with the anatomical features
of the studied Tulipa species (T. gumusanica, T. armena
var. armena, T. armena var. lycica and T. aleppensis)
(Coşkunçelebi & al. 2008; Ocak & al. 2004; Satıl
& Akan 2006). However, some anatomical characteristics
of the stem were different, such as the supporting
tissues. T. gumusanica and T. armena var. armena
have a distinct monolayer collenchyma under the
epidermis (Coşkunçelebi & al. 2008). While T. armena
var. lycica does not contain collenchyma layers in
the stem; it has 4–5-layered sclerenchyma on the inner
side of the cortex (Ocak & al. 2004). T. aleppensis contains
neither a collenchyma, nor a sclerenchyma in the
stem (Satıl & Akan 2006). T. orphanidea is similar anatomically
to T. gumusanica and T. armena var. armena
in the stem. The stem cortex of T. orphanidea has a
monolayer collenchyma under the epidermis.
Anatomical features of the leaf of T. orphanidea
were similar to the examined Tulipa species (Ocak &
al. 2004; Satıl & Akan 2006; Coşkunçelebi & al. 2008).
The mesophyll is not differentiated into a palisade and
a spongy parenchyma. It is composed of isodiametric
parenchymatic cells. Both T. gumusanica and T. armena
var. armena have a monolayer hypodermis beneath
the upper epidermis (Coşkunçelebi & al. 2008). It has
not been reported in T. armena var. lycica by Ocak &
al. (2004) and in T. aleppensis by Satıl & Akan (2006).
For morphologically similar and closely related
taxa, anatomical traits are very important diagnostic
characteristics that can be used to distinguish
the species from each other. The anatomical features
of T. orphanidea are reported for the first time in this
study and are compared to other studied Tulipa species.
Some differences related to anatomical properties
have been found.